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Other, later myths came to enrich our vision of a continent of wonders, dangers and inexhaustible wealth: the Spanish Main; the slave trade; the great rivers; Cape Horn; Spanish port, fever port, port of Holy Peter.

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Cummins 9 introduction gives a vivid picture of the fifteenth-century world which gave birth to Columbus and his voyage. Martin's Press New York To Smn, Hmish and Ewen THE VOYAGE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: COLUMBUS'o WN JOURNAL OF DISCOVERY, Copyright 1992 by John Cummins. I have received invaluable help from the staff of the Aberdeen University Library, especially from the Photographic Service and from Colin Mc Laren and Myrtle Anderson-Smith of the Special Collections section.

He settles once and for all the contentious question of Columbus* nationality; he argues that the idea of a **flat earth" was no longer given much credence in Columbus 9 time; he explores Columbus' intricate self-deception, his undying conviction that despite all ap- pearances to the contrary he was in the Orient, the land of the Great Khan. All rights reserved, Printed in the United States of America, No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. The help of Jorge Urrutia in Seville, Guillermina Cenoz and Fernando Huerta in Barcelona and Annamaria Venturi in Genoa eased the progress of my research considerably.

The Voyage of Christopher Columbus Hypocrisy, the cynical might say; and Bartolome de las Casas, the priest through whose interest and diligence our closest approximation to Columbus's original Journal survives, is always ready to point out the contradictions inherent in the dual motivation.

3 But the strength of faith underlying the voyage is unquestionable.

In an extraordinary piece of scholar- ship, John Cummins has restored Colum- bus* Journal in a much fuller version than any yet known.

Las Casas* version is a hodge-podge of syntax and style, omitting some passages and embellishing others. Cummins has gone back to other sources and translated them anew in- cluding Columbus' son Fernando* s biog- raphy of his father, records of legal battles over the spoils, and Columbus* own library to reveal a closer understanding than ever before of the voyage that changed the shape of the world. Macdonald) Pero Lopez de Ayala, Libro de la caqa de las aves The Voyage of CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS Columbus' Own ]ournal of Discovery Newly Restored and Translated John Cummins St. C725 1992 970,01'5 / 092-dc20 92-4012 CIP First published in Great Britain by George Weidenfeld and Nicolson, First U. Edition: May 1992 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Acknowledgements vii Maps viii 1 1492: An End and a beginning i 2 The Orient and the Ocean Sea 7 3 Cristoforo Colombo 19 4 Planning and Persuasion 3 1 5 Vessels Well Suited 46 6 Shipboard Life and Sailing 59 7 Restoring and Translating the Journal 67 The Journal 79 Appendix I The Voyage Seen Through Other Eyes: the Pleitos de Colon 193 Appendix II The Payroll of the Voyage 204 Notes 207 Select Bibliography 230 Sources of Illustrations and Figures 233 Index 235 Acknowledgements My thanks are due to my colleagues in the University of Aberdeen, Jim Forsyth (Russian), Bob Ralph (Zoology), Jeffrey Stone (Geography) and Chris Wilcock (Plant Science), for assistance with specific points and for the loan or gift of textual material.The Conquistadors followed, and returned with tales of El Dorado.The riches which they brought home funded Spanish power in Europe, turned mediaeval reivers into hidalgos and paid for the art of Velazquez, Rubens and Titian, the craft of goldsmith, gunmaker and embroiderer, the overdressed galleons of the Armada and the literary glories of the Golden Age.The anti-Islamic impetus of these gradually expanding kingdoms had been made sporadic by the resurgent fervour of the enemy, sometimes bolstered from Africa, and by squabbles with Christian neighbours who were often royal siblings. In the royal campaign headquarters at Santa Fe, near Granada, only a few days before the formal surrender of the city, Columbus received permission from the Queen to proceed with his project to seek a western route to the orient.The new beginning is tied so neatly to the ending, the sequence is so felicitous, that one resists making the point Introduction for fear of accusations of being facile.Above all, Spanish: over 200 million speakers now west of the Atlantic, the successors to the brave and hopeful thirty-nine who used the timbers of the Santa Maria, wrecked on Christmas Day, to build the first, shortlived foothold, the 'fortress and town' of Navidad. Spaniards celebrating that Christmas in Spain, however, even if they had seen Columbus's three little ships drop down the Saltes river with the tide in the blaze of August and knew their mission, would give thanks for the year as the time of a great, triumphal ending.

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