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The technique is based on the fact that certain crystal behaves as natural dosimeters.

This means that electrons and holes are accumulated over time in the crystal lattice induced by surrounding radiation.

Track lengths (initially ~ 17 microns in length) are proportional to the cooling rate as tracks anneal and close during slow cooling.

nuclide dating-32

Measuring the energy and determining the rate at which the energy accumulated allows an age representing the time that has elapsed since the energy began accumulating to be determined.

Stimulation of energy release using heat is termed TL while stimulation using light is referred to as OSL.

TY - JOURT1 - Snow shielding factors for cosmogenic nuclide dating inferred from Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations AU - Zweck, Christopher AU - Zreda, Marek GAU - Desilets, Darin PY - 2013/10/1Y1 - 2013/10/1N2 - Conventional formulations of changes in cosmogenic nuclide production rates with snow cover are based on a mass-shielding approach, which neglects the role of neutron moderation by hydrogen.

AB - Conventional formulations of changes in cosmogenic nuclide production rates with snow cover are based on a mass-shielding approach, which neglects the role of neutron moderation by hydrogen.

We use a Monte Carlo particle transport model to simulate fluxes of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons near the surface of the Earth and vary surface snow depth to show changes in neutron fluxes above rock or soil surface.

To correspond with shielding factors for spallation and low-energy neutron capture, neutron fluxes are partitioned into high-energy, epithermal and thermal components.

This means that low-energy production rates are affected by snow cover in a manner inconsistent with the mass-shielding approach and those formulations cannot be used to compute snow correction factors for nuclides produced by thermal neutrons.

Additionally, as above-ground low-energy neutron fluxes vary with snow cover as a result of reduced diffusion from the ground, low-energy neutron fluxes are affected by snow even if the snow is at some distance from the site where measurements are made.

Thermaluminesence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminesence (OSL) may assist in extending age dating timescales though there is a huge challenge in selecting suitable sampling materials.

TL dating is a matter of comparing the energy stored in a crystal to what "ought" to be there, thereby coming up with a date-of-last-heated.

Luminescence dating is a collective term for dating methods that encompass thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques.

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