online dating site of - Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake

This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods.Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific.

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It involves the recruitment of the endocytic structures that are stabilized by clathrin triskelia that form the clathrin coat, and contain a N-terminal β-propeller domain (TD) that acts as a hub for protein-protein interaction [8].

These routes have varying degree of success as any drug or DNA cargo attached to the NP are ultimately localised in cytoplasmic endosomes, and are thus open to cell degradation [6].

Recent advances in nanotechnology allow functionalisation of NPs with ligands for various therapeutic and diagnostic applications including bio-sensing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), site-specific drug delivery, stem cell tracking and treatment of hyperthermia [3].

Several NP attributes contributing to these applications include: high surface area to volume ratio and high surface reactivity [4].

Magnetic NPs (m NPs), such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe), are of such a size that they are easily magnetised under an applied field, but lose their magnetism as soon as the magnetic field is removed (thus preventing NP aggregation), and provide an excellent platform for use in clinic.

Currently m NPs are employed in clinic in MRI, which allows intra-tissue and intracellular detection.

We have previously shown that both the use of magnetic field and penetratin increased cellular uptake of 500 nm NPs [23].

In addition, a recent study in our group demonstrated that when considering cells cultured in 3D (collagen gel culture), a magnetic field was complimentary to the use of 200 nm m NP functionalised with CPPs, with both together providing the optimal gel penetration and cellular uptake as opposed to when used alone [24].

The hydrophobic nature of these lipids prevents the diffusion of various polar solutes such as proteins and peptides across the cell membrane, leading to the prevention of unconstrained influx and efflux of various solutes [5].

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