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Assessing Developmental Environmental Risk Factor Exposure in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Individuals: Preliminary Results Using the Individual and Structural Exposure to Stress in Psychosis-Risk States Scale Department of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Medical Social Sciences, Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USAIntroduction: Exposure to cumulative environmental risk factors across development has been linked to a host of adverse health/functional outcomes.
This perspective incorporating information regarding exposure at differing developmental periods is lacking in research surrounding individuals at Clinical High Risk (CHR) for developing a psychotic disorder.
This period happens during adolescence and young adulthood and is marked by attenuated psychotic symptoms and accompanying functional impairment.
Individuals at CHR for psychosis (those meeting for a psychosis risk syndrome) include a large subgroup of those in the prodromal stage—as many of 10–30% transition to a psychotic disorder within a two-year period [9,30,31].
Yet, psychosis risk models of psychopathology often focus on single risk factors or stressors, such as childhood trauma [30,31].
This is despite the notion that exposure to more than one environmental risk factor yields more adverse developmental consequences.
Group differences were tested, and associations with current symptom domains were examined.
Results: Significant group differences were not observed for lifetime cumulative events, though CHR trended toward endorsing more events and greater stress severity.
For example, the prefrontal cortex, which underlies essential stress and affect regulation functions, does not fully mature until the third decade of life, and is therefore undergoing significant development during this stage [3,34].
Emerging studies in non-clinical populations indicate that examining stressors across differing stages of development is crucial [4,6,9,13,14,27,36].
For example, according to the National Center for Children in Poverty, in 2010 20% of American children under 6 years of age had experienced 3 or more developmental risk factors, and 41% had experienced 1–2 risks .Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating