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After the Haitian revolution of 1791, creoles and peninsulares thought that only the presence of the Spanish army could maintain order and their privilege.This fear added to the reluctance of the slave-holding creole elite to support the movement for independence.The national anthem was composed at the start of the first war for independence, the Ten Years War (1868-1878).

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The peninsulares' privileges and wealth evoked the resentment of the creoles, who outnumbered them.

There were creole elites, especially merchants in Havana, whose privilege was dependent on the colonial status of the island, but most eastern creoles increasingly saw their interests as opposed to those of Spain.

The triangle is imposed on three blue stripes alternating with two white stripes.

The third symbol of national pride and independence is the flag of the 26th July Movement, which contains the black initials M26J (Movimiento 26 de Julio) on a field of red.

But the eastern planters had less to fear from a slave revolt, since their farms were much smaller and had far fewer slaves.

Hence, the contestation over the meaning of Cubanness was between eastern planters, African slaves, freed blacks, impoverished white farmers, and urban workers one the one side, and peninsulares and western creole elites on the other side.

Their privileged status as colonizers depended on the maintenance of colonial structures; thus, their loyalty was to Spain even if they were lifelong residents of the colony.

Peninsulares had an almost exclusive claim to administrative (governmental) offices and ecclesiastical appointments and a near monopoly on much trade with Spain and other nations.

Since the European conquest, the western third of the island has exercised military, political, economic, and cultural dominance.

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