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Above is a graph that illustrates the relationship between how much Carbon 14 is left in a sample and how old it is. However, I note that there is no beginning or ending amount given.Return the remaining heads up pennies to the box and toss them again onto the table surface.

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Repeat the process until all pennies have landed tails up.

If no pennies are tails up on a particular toss, leave the column corresponding to that toss empty.

Libby invented carbon dating for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1960.

The halflife of carbon 14 is 5730 ± 30 years, and the method of dating lies in trying to determine how much carbon 14 (the radioactive isotope of carbon) is present in the artifact and comparing it to levels currently present in the atmosphere.

The amazing thing is that we can accurately mimic, in a quantitative way, what happens during radioactive decay with just a few pennies. Well, start by noting that when you toss a single coin, the chance that it will land tails up is about 50%, the same as the chance that it will land heads up. If you toss a bunch of pennies into the air, the chance that any particular one of them will be tails up is still 50%.

If a particular penny lands heads up on the first toss, the chance that it will land tails up on the second toss is still 50%.

In talking about problems like population growth, we needed to learn about the exponential function.

This function is useful for describing many very different observations in science.

the chance that an atom will decay in the next second is unaffected by the fact that it did not decay a second ago.

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